Writing 101 (tips)
There is also some of my advice on my Ask Me page – scroll down to the comments section.
I don’t profess to know everything there is to know about creative writing (do brain surgeons know everything about the brain?) but I’ve been on tons of courses, workshops and to literature events, talks etc. over the past eight years (probably spent more than an MA!) for a fair amount to have sunk in. I’ve also been running writing groups since 2008 and teaching since 2013. Anyway, on to the reason for this page…
At 5am on Wednesday 24th October 2012, I woke up to a message from my Facebook friend Scott Goodman saying, “Hello again Morgen. Been listening to some of your podcasts on tips for new writers, really interesting about the common mistakes that are made. Just to throw an idea at you have you thought about a section on your blog for, so to speak “writing 101″, how to teach the complete idiot to put pen to paper (yes me lol)”. I’ve met Scott (at the booQfest 2012) and know he is far from an “idiot”. I replied what a good idea it was and that “idiots” were only beginners who hadn’t learned yet… so, hence this page. Thank you, Scott!
I’ll build it up with lots of hints and tips but if there’s anything in particular you’d like to know then leave a comment at the bottom (and I have an Ask Me facility). There’s also a (Roald Dahl) shed load of hints and tips on the Podcast – mixed episodes page.
I shall start you with my writing essentials below, but as they build I shall probably create sub-pages under topics…
American science-fiction novelist Jerry Pournell is reported to have said “I think it takes about a million words to make a writer. I mean that you’re going to throw away.” I started writing for fun eight years ago and more seriously five years ago and with five NaNoWriMo novels, one-and-a-half novels in between, three NaNoWriMo story collections (a cheat on doing a novel November 2011 but I still made the 50,000-word minimum), part of a script, some poetry and loads of short stories under my belt, including 31-story collections for Story A Day May, I’m pretty sure I’ve reached that target. How much of them I’ve thrown away I couldn’t tell you but it’s only a fraction, and if like me, you’ve dabbled before knuckling down, you’ll feel better for it. It’s all about practice. If someone sat you in front of a piano, would they expect you to play a concerto? Would you expect that of yourself?
In my experience too many novice writers worry about finding their ‘voice’ and understanding their ‘craft’ early on. It can be a long journey, perhaps not as long as a million words, but providing you write regularly (daily is the ideal but when does life afford that luxury, although 300 words equates to 100,000 words a year so a great incentive) you’ll get there… and here are a few basics to put in your suitcase:
- One of my most important, and simple tips, is to always carry a notebook (in every jacket pocket / bag) and two pens – in case one doesn’t work – because you never know when inspiration will strike. There’s nothing worse (there probably is, but not for a writer with a brilliant idea) than to have had the best ever thought but have no way of recording it. If you’re like me, it will only take the most simple distraction to lose it… possibly forever.
- Adjectives – Adjectives are, in order: Number, quality, size, age, colour / color, origin, and type. So, if you say you have ten large books, you do not need a comma since ten is a number and large is a size. The adjectives are of the same weight or degree. If, on the other hand, you say you have a shiny, sparkling ring, you will need to put commas between them since shiny and sparkly both describe the quality of the ring.’ Also see ‘Commas’. When comparing using adjectives, the general rule is that if the adjective is short (e.g. black) it should have -er on the end, e.g. it was blacker than he’d expected. If the adjective is long (e.g. attractive), you’d say ‘she was more attractive than he’d expected’. Generally, it’s how it sounds. ‘she was attractiver’ wouldn’t sound right, would it. (please say “no”) :)
- Adverbs – Stephen King’s writing guide / autobiography ‘On writing’ (link on Writing-related) has been the most suggested book in the interviews I’ve conducted. Amongst other things he’s notoriously against adverbs (‘ly’) and fair enough – in ‘completely dead’ you wouldn’t need the ‘completely’ because dead says it all, and a character doesn’t need to be ‘sighing wearily’ because the sighing tells us enough, but adverbs are necessary in the right context. Again it’s all about clarification and fine-tuning. Some great articles on adverbs include https://suite.io/kenneth-burchfiel/1a2b2p0, http://chiseledinrock.blogspot.co.uk/2011/05/stupid-writing-rules-watch-adverbs.html, http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/how-to-eliminate-adverbs, http://www.writingforward.com/writing-tips/writing-tips-abolish-adverbs, and http://www.humankinetics.com/flguideonweb/NitToPick32UnnecessaryAdjAdv.htm.
- Affect vs effect – http://www.elearnenglishlanguage.com/blog/english-mistakes/affect-vs-effect says, “Affect is a verb with several different meanings” (which the page lists) and “Effect is most commonly used a noun”.
- Again – there are often instances where you don’t need the word ‘again’, e.g. as in ‘reminded again’, ‘returned again’ etc. Unless something’s happened more than twice, the verb in those cases say that it’s happened more than once.
- Ago vs before – if you’re writing fiction in the present tense you can say something was ten years ago but if you’re writing in past tense you’d use ‘before’. The easy way to remember the difference is that with past tense, it already happened before today.
- All and both – it’s easy to include the words ‘all’ and ‘both’ when you don’t need them. Say your character is unlocking a car, you don’t need to say ‘all the doors’, just say ‘the doors’. Unless he / she is only unlocking one or, say, half of them, it’s assumed all are unlocked. The same goes with ‘both'; if you have two of something, by saying ‘they’ or ‘them’, you don’t need to include the word ‘both’.
- Among vs amongst – one of the main Daily Writing Tips is http://www.dailywritingtips.com/among-vs-amongst which explains that ‘amongst does seem old-fashioned – but it’s still grammatically correct as an alternative to among. It’s up to you to select which you prefer!’. That’s good news. Just like http://www.dailywritingtips.com/the-difference-between-while-and-whilst saying you can use either, although whilst, like amongst, is deemed old-fashioned.
- Animals – they say never to work with children or animals but at one time or another we write about them. It’s obviously easy to tell whether a child is feminine or masculine but harder to tell the gender if an animal (this is where fantasy writers say, “if they have one”!) so rather than describe the animal / creature as him or her, stick with it, unless the gender is clear / important. ‘It’ is especially useful when you already have a him / her so helps avoid the reader getting confused as to whom the him / her refers.
- Any more vs anymore – if you were to say, “Do you have any more cakes?” then that would be two words. If there aren’t any, the reply would be “I don’t have any more”, but it could also be “I don’t have any cakes anymore” so ‘anymore’ in that instance means time. So remember time is one word (syllable) and quantity is two (syllables).
- Arms’ length or arms’ length – http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/arm’s-length says it should be singular, arm’s length.
- Apostrophes – I could fill this page on when and where to use apostrophes but I’ll let the http://www.apostrophe.org.uk/page2.html page explain that (basically yes for possessions e.g. Tom’s hat and abbreviations like it’s for it is – no for plurals e.g. Tom’s hats). When it comes to oddities like 1980s, again it’s referring to several years (1980, 1981 etc) so it’s plural and no apostrophe.
- As vs so/then or because/when – I’ve added this because one of the client novels I was editing had a phrase, ‘he found it as he turned back’ which could be read as him having found it before he turned back (the ‘so’ or ‘then’ version of ‘as’) or that he’d found it when he turned back (the ‘because’ or ‘when’ version of ‘as’). Isn’t the English language great. :)
- Before vs ago – as mentioned above, a common mistake when writing past tense stories is to say that something happened ‘six months ago’. Because you’re writing in past tense you’re already historical so it’s not six months ago from now so you should put ‘six months before’.
- Began to / started to – only have characters begin / start to do something if they’re going to be interrupted. If they do something, have them do it, so just use the active verb e.g. he sang instead of he began to sing / started to sing. Apart from cutting down the word count, it brings the reader (and the character) quicker to the action.
- Beginnings – beginnings should invariably start with the action. Avoid info. dumps where you giving so much to the reader that their brain hurts especially where it’s irrelevant – do they need to know where the main character (protagonist) went to school? Sure, if it’s relevant and if they’re still there, or they’re reflecting back on it for a reason. That said, when you’re writing a first draft it doesn’t matter how you start. It’s often said that an author can either delete (or better still cut / paste into another document) the first two chapters because the action starts in the third. If the first two chapters are important they can be slotted in later. Sure, we need to know who our protagonist is, the dilemma they’re facing, an indication of setting and another character fairly soon as they’re bound to have an interaction with someone else at some stage and it’s often another character (the antagonist) that causes our protagonist the problem”.
- Besides vs beside – http://www.grammar-monster.com/easily_confused/beside_besides.htm has a great explanation on the difference, but basically beside is a synonym for next to or near, and besides is a synonym for furthermore or in addition to.
- Body movements – before you snigger, no, I’m not being smutty! There are phrases connected with the body that can be trimmed, e.g. he shrugged his shoulders, nodded his head, she replied with a big grin on her face. In those instances, the ‘his shoulders’, ‘his head’ and ‘on her face’ can go because the phrases still make sense – we know shrugging can only be done by shoulders, nodding by a character’s head and grins by the face.
- Boredom – this may sound odd but I’d advice against having a character being bored or saying things like “this is boring” because it can encourage the reader to think the same, and perhaps that the writer was when they were writing it. :)
- Both and all – see ‘All and both’ above.
- Capitalisation – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capitalization#Titles says, “In English, some authors/publishers capitalize the first word and the last word of titles. In addition, they believe that all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and subordinate conjunctions should be capitalized. Articles and coordinating conjunctions are not capitalized, while sources disagree on the capitalisation of prepositions. For example, no prepositions are capitalized in the title of a book, a movie, or a play according to some style guides, for example the Chicago Manual of Style. The APA style guide, for example, however says: Capitalize major words in titles of books and articles within the body of the paper. Conjunctions, articles, and short prepositions are not considered major words; however, capitalize all words of four letters or more.“
- Chapter lengths – how long should your chapters be? It doesn’t matter. James Patterson’s are anywhere between a paragraph or a few pages. Graham Hurley’s 300-page novel Nocturne has three chapters. I’d advise no more than 15-20 pages per chapter so that your reader can read the whole chapter in one sitting (e.g. before going to bed), although hopefully your novel will have such a great hook that they want to keep reading anyway.
- Characters: flaws – all characters should have flaws. No one is perfect, even the good guys (and gals). Most readers will find characters with a disability, however small (a lisp, a limp), endearing. As well as external flaws, your characters can, and should, have internal flaws, e.g. thinking they’re not as attractive as they are, thinking they’re more attractive etc. On the flipside, consider giving your antagonist (the bad guy) a redeemable quality. As the cliché goes, not everything is black and white. What may not appear as a flaw, e.g. a character being particularly tall, could hinder them, e.g. a tall woman trying to find a tall partner. What difficulties would a 2m / 6’6″ man have? Someone taller who has to dip under doorways?
- Characters: names – Character names are important as we often get a sense of their personality by what they’re called. A Mavis is likely to be older than a Britney and would, usually, act differently. Avoid having names starting with the same letter; if you have a Todd talking to a Ted, the reader can easily get confused. Bill and Ted would be fine and as we know, they had a wonderful time back in the late 1980s. Try to avoid starting your sentences with your character’s name, as it can get repetitive and obvious. I’ve often recommended to my editing clients to write a list of their (your) characters in a five-column portrait table: 1. A-Z going down the page (at least two lines per letter); 2. Female first name (& chapter no. if you’re writing a novel); 3. Female surname / chapter no.; 4. Male first name / chapter no.; 5. Male surname / chapter no. As well as ensuring they don’t all start with the same letter, it encourages them (you) to try for the more unusual letters. I have this table in a Word document. Just let me know (firstname.lastname@example.org) if you’d like me to email it to you. Also when you’re greeting or sometimes talking about a character, you often need a comma before their name e.g. “I didn’t know that John” means that you didn’t know a person called John. If you’re talking to John and you’re telling him there was something you didn’t know then you need a comma, e.g. “I didn’t know that, John.”
- Characters: quantity – don’t have too many characters in your stories. Two or three is usually enough for a short story. I read Kate Atkinson’s Behind The Scenes At The Museum for a college course. The novel had about a dozen (eleven, from memory) different female characters. I ended up drawing a family tree (they were all related on the maternal side) and admit I was struggling but I persevered and was very glad I did… she became my favourite living author.
- Characters: viewpoint – Even if you’re using omniscient third-person point of view, you must have a new section (blank line then new non-indented paragraph) if you’re changing point of view, i.e. if you’ve been in one character’s head in the earlier paragraph and now want to be in another.
- Clichés – try to avoid clichés. It’s OK to have a character quoting the occasional well-worn phrase but the narrator shouldn’t. Try and find a better way of saying something we’ve heard a million times (to use a cliché!). The same goes for similes and metaphors. Rather than saying something was ‘as white as chalk / snow’ or ‘black as night / ink’, think of something else to replace the noun with. Your character could say something was as white as his / her mum’s face, which also tells us that her mother either uses too much make up, is naturally fair-skinned or is ill, and that his / her dog or cat is as black as his / her laptop. Just by having the words ‘as white as’ and ‘as dark as’ implies that they are extreme.
- Colons – there’s often confusion between a colon and semi-colon. Generally if you’re going to list something use a colon, if you’re going to enhance or explain something you use a semi-colon, and in both cases, you use a small letter (unless a name follows) for the first word after the colon or semi-colon, e.g. He told her what he needed: a rope, goggles and a notebook. http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/marks/colon.htm explains in detail and http://www.colonsemicolon.com is a great resource.
- Colours – it’s easy to forget to include colours in your writing, but adding them does make your writing feel more vivid. So rather than say brightly-coloured, tell the reader what colour something was and rather than say ‘red’, which can be any shade of red, tell us it’s russet, claret, pillar box etc., although a less cliched red would be better – you could compare it to something that people would know, e.g. the red was so bright, she looked like a walking phone box. That would also place the narrator as British. Also see ‘Adjectives’.
- Commas in general sentences – I think we generally all know when to use full stops and commas. If you pause for breath you’ll probably need a comma. If you come to the end of a sentence, use a full stop. A sentence is usually defined as a collection of words that make sense together. Commas are usually used before a ‘but’ where the rest of the sentence would make sense on its own. If you read your work out loud, it’ll be more obvious where they’re needed. There’s some more help on http://grammar.yourdictionary.com/punctuation/comma-usage.html, including, ‘If you use a number of adjectives to describe something, you sometimes have to put commas between them.
- Commas between adjectives – whether or not a comma is required depends on the weight of the adjective. Adjectives are, in order: Number, quality, size, age, colour / color, origin, and type. So, if you say you have ten large books, you do not need a comma since ten is a number and large is a size. The adjectives are of the same weight or degree. If, on the other hand, you say you have a shiny, sparkling ring, you will need to put commas between them since shiny and sparkly both describe the quality of the ring.’ http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/04/09/fanfare-for-the-comma-man and http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/05/21/the-most-comma-mistakes is also useful. See http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/commas-with-adjectives for using commas when listing adjectives. Basically, if you can put ‘and’ between the adjectives then you use a comma, e.g. the big, heavy box would make sense if you said ‘the big and heavy box’. By putting a comma you’re distinguishing that it was the box that was big, not the heavy that was big. http://www.grammar-monster.com/lessons/commas_in_lists.htm is also a great resource.
- Commas in dialogue – also, as I’ve listed above with character names, when you’re greeting or sometimes talking about a character, you often need a comma before their name e.g. “I didn’t know that John” means that you didn’t know a person called John. If you’re talking to John and you’re telling him there was something you didn’t know then you need a comma, e.g. “I didn’t know that, John.”
- Commas after ‘transitional’ phrases – transitional phrases are those sentences started by words such as ‘however’, ‘therefore’, ‘consequently’, ‘of course’, etc. where they follow / explain a previous sentence http://www.grammar-monster.com/lessons/commas_after_a_transitional_phrase.htm gives some examples.
- Commas with conjunctions – http://www.grammar-monster.com/lessons/conjunctions.htm explains when to put a comma before the likes of ‘and’ or ‘but’.
- Consistency – unless you’re intentionally writing a character who is inconsistent, make sure you’re consistent with everything you write. If your character has blue eyes in chapter one, they’re not going to have green eyes in chapter twelve, unless in the meantime they’ve put in contact lenses.
- Contractions (e.g. he or she had vs he’d/she’d) – it’s perfectly fine to use contractions in writing, especially in dialogue, as long as it sounds right. You’re reading your work out loud when you edit anyway (aren’t you?) so you’ll hear when it sounds right or wrong. For example, you’d say ‘he’d known her for a year’ rather than ‘he had known…’ (although both are correct), but you wouldn’t change ‘when he had to, he did it’ to ‘when he’d to, he did it’ because you want the emphasis to be on the ‘had’.
- Dash vs hyphen (also see ‘Hyphens’ below) – hyphens (-) are generally only used to connect two words. Longer dashes (–) are used in various ways, but mainly to separate two sections within a sentence where the text between the dashes is highlighted, more so than separating it with commas. In dialogue where the first character is cut off by the second character, the long dash is used immediately after the final letter and before the close speech marks, e.g. “That’s not f–” http://keligwyn.wordpress.com/2011/11/28/puncutating-interrupted-dialogue explains further and http://eliteediting.blogspot.co.uk/2011/08/hyphens-en-dashes-and-em-dashes.html is another great guide on dashes vs hyphens. http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/16/images/ch07_tab01.pdf is also a very comprehensive guide on hyphens from the masters of grammar.
- Dialogue: accents (also see ‘Slang’) – less is more; indicate where someone’s from but don’t have their entire speech in that accent (or slang speak) as you’ll alienate readers who don’t know that part of the country / world. That said, a piece should feel authentic so if you’re writing historical, your characters won’t speak as we do now but don’t go mad, use just enough. I talk more about accents on http://morgenbailey.freeforums.org/putting-journal-entries-in-a-book-t81.html.
- Dialogue: keeping it real – remember that we don’t always talk in complete sentences. Have characters interrupt each other, which would be written with a dash where the first character is cut off, e.g. “I knew you were going to–” “What?” I’d recommend studying any fictional TV programme and see what they do. Soaps are good examples because they’re often fast moving and set in minimal locations, e.g. a street or area of a town so more dialogue than action / camera movement (the equivalent of description in a book).
- Dialogue: layout – each character should have its own paragraph when speaking so if you have two or more characters speaking, when they speak the text should appear on a separate paragraph.
- Dialogue: punctuation – punctuation in dialogue is very different to normal text. There’s a great set of dialogue punctuation rules at http://teacherweb.com/CT/scottsridgems/Jennes/punctuating.pdf. In dialogue where the first character is cut off by the second character, the long dash is used immediately after the final letter and before the close speech marks, e.g. “That’s not f–” http://keligwyn.wordpress.com/2011/11/28/puncutating-interrupted-dialogue explains further, and http://teacherweb.com/CT/scottsridgems/Jennes/punctuating.pdf is also a great resource. And Dummies are famous for their low-tech guides and here’s an extract from their English Grammar For Dummies, 2nd Edition.
- Dialogue: tags – it’s recommended that you can only go up to six pieces of dialogue (between no more than two people) without attributing it to someone. And there’s nothing wrong with ‘said’. Don’t be tempted to look at your thesaurus and say ‘Andy postulated’. You could also avoid tags by another character saying “Oh Andy, that’s…” or in the description; ‘Andy laughed. “That’s…”. Another practice for dialogue (especially if you need to distinguish between your characters) is to write a section, or even a whole piece of flash fiction, of just dialogue; no ‘he said’ / ‘she said’ but purely what they are saying. If you can write it, leave it for at least two weeks and then read the whole piece and know who’s saying what then that may help the rest of your writing.
- Dialogue: also see ‘Said she vs she said’ below.
- Direct vs indirect action – Try and make your writing as direct as you can. What do I mean by that? Have the character (Ted) throw the ball rather than say “The ball was thrown by Ted”. Also instead of saying “Ted saw the train speeding towards the car”, having the train speeding towards the car means you’re closer to the action.
- Each other’s or each others’ – http://virtuallinguist.typepad.com/the_virtual_linguist/2010/03/each-others-or-each-others.html explains that ‘each other’ behaves like a single pronoun (think of it as ‘each one’ so the correct use would be each other’s.
- Easily-confused words – http://www.grammar-monster.com/easily_confused_words.htm has a long list of easily-confused words (e.g. affect / effect) and explains the differences.
- Effect vs affect – http://www.elearnenglishlanguage.com/blog/english-mistakes/affect-vs-effect says, “Affect is a verb with several different meanings” (which the page lists) and “Effect is most commonly used a noun”.
- Ellipses – these are the … dots which always come in threes. If you use a computer package such as Word you’ll probably find it automatically changes the three individual dots to a set of three dots (so your cursor would only move one space instead of three when you go over them). If you’re using them in dialogue where the character trails off (if they’re interrupted, you’d use a long dash), then the three dots come immediately after the final word but if you are using them in text where you are leaving out a word or section, then the ellipses appear on their own (see http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/marks/ellipsis.htm for a fuller explanation).
- Endings – endings are just as important, if not more so than beginnings. They have to tie up all the loose ends – unless you’re writing a series where questions will be answered in later books, you need to make sure that any queries the reader may have had about the plot through the book are answered by the end. They also need to leave the reader with some emotion; relief, pleasure, at the very least satisfaction. How many times have you thrown down a book (a paper one rather than electronic, hopefully) because you’d been disappointed by the ending. Not only have you invested money in what you’ve just read but also several hours of your time. Of course if the beginning and middle weren’t good enough to keep you motivated you may not have reached the end but if they were then it’s even more important to reward the reader for making it thus far. It wasn’t all a dream (thank you, Bobby Ewing) or the antagonist a figment of the protagonist’s imagination (aka Stephen King’s Secret Window). Everything has to make sense, to the point where the reader says, “Oh yes, of course!” or they go back looking for the clues and find them.
- Excess words – there are loads of words that you’ll probably find you don’t need in your writing. A few of mine are: usually, normally, especially, that, just, whilst (which is better as ‘while’), completely, totally, really, etc. With any word, if you can remove it and the sentence still make sense, it can be chopped.
- Exclamation marks and capitals – try to avoid these wherever you can because the reader will think that you’re shouting at them. Obviously if your characters shouts ‘stop’ then you’d likely use an exclamation mark (and you wouldn’t need to say ‘he shouted’ because we know he did from what he said).
- Exclamation marks or question marks – a great guide to when to use which mark http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/marks/exclamation.htm.
- Exposition – I’ve been asked how to write first-person exposition, that is where the reader needs to be told facts that the character knows but without them repeating it, i.e. without saying (to another character), “As you know, Rick, when I lost my job I…” http://www.advancedfictionwriting.com/blog/2013/05/23/writing-first-person is very good, http://www.longridgewritersgroup.com/rx/wc11/tinting_exposition_with_character.shtml is interesting. You don’t have to have the exposition in dialogue, you could have it in the description, e.g. ‘Losing her job changed her…’ (although that’s more tell than show), you can have it from another character in dialogue, e.g. ‘I thought you’d always hated your job. Never mind, you’ll get another.” (again quite weak). If you’re writing a first draft, I’d suggest just writing it then see how much you can take out afterwards. It’s all about context. If the reader can deduce from other events / dialogue that something specific has happened to a character then the telling of that event can go. It’s inevitably about reaction to the event that ‘shows’ the reader what happened.
- Faint vs feint – http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/feint explains Faint means ‘only just able to be seen, heard, or smelled’ (the faint murmur of voices) or ‘lose consciousness’, while feint means ‘a mock attack’ or ‘make a deceptive movement’ (I feinted to the right, then moved to the left). There was I thinking that lined pads had feint lines but looks like I was wrong (it does happen). :)
- Farther vs Further – http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/further-versus-farther?page=all has a great explanation for the difference (think of far as a distance and further as in furthermore / additionally).
- Feet vs Foot – http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/units-measure?page=all explains the differences (and other units of measurement).
- Hankies vs tissues – handkerchiefs are cloth (usually cotton) and tissues are paper. It makes a difference in a reader’s mind which one you use.
- Hyphen (also see ‘Dash vs hyphen’ above) – http://www.csun.edu/~hcjou002/JHyphen.Guide.pdf has a great list of words that should and shouldn’t be hyphenated. There’s also a great page on hyphenating numbers on http://www.grammar-monster.com/lessons/numbers_as_compound_adjectives.htm, and the guru of grammar, http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/how-to-use-a-hyphen (note: this link runs to four page, clickable links towards the bottom of the page). Other resources include http://stylemanual.ngs.org/home/H/hyphen and for overuse of hyphens is http://www.proofreadnow.com/mar-16-2011-grammartip. An example of when to use hyphens and when not to is ‘a far-right party is typical of the far right’.
- Lie vs lay – to lie is I lay in past tense but in present tense, people lie, chickens lay.
- Locations – locations often do vary depending upon genre. Thrillers, for example, tend to have a far wider geography than a romance or crime. Have a dead body in the beginning of your novel and the chances are that the police will concentrate on that area and find the killer lives within the vicinity. This can vary, of course, but the story should be about plot rather than location, although the locations can often be used as another character e.g. the Lake District, Edinburgh, Dartmoor etc. Locations can often determine the type of story e.g. you’d usually have a horror set in a graveyard rather than a romance but there’s nothing stopping you have two lovers meeting there. Locations can be inside or outside; Emma Donoghue’s ‘Room’ mainly takes place in a room, Agatha Christie’s ‘The Orient Express’ takes place on a train, and the Bourne trilogy / Mission Impossible / James Bond films take place in several countries.
- Metaphors and similes – these are very similar and it’s not surprising that people get confused. Similes most common and are ‘as slow as’ or ‘like a’ so something’s being compared as something else (that it’s similar too). A metaphor is more direct; for example, ‘he was a mountain of a man’, so although the man is being compared to a mountain, the narrator is saying he is one.
- Middle age vs middle-aged: http://forum.wordreference.com/showthread.php?t=227520 explains that In general, middle-aged should be used to refer to people, and also when it’s used in apposition (as a subjective complement). But middle-age can be used adjectivally with concepts. “A middle-aged man has problems.” “That’s a problem men have in their middle-age years.” or “I’m not deaf, I’m ignoring you– my problems are still what you’d call middle-age.”
- Normally, most of the time, usually – these all mean the same thing so you only need to use one in the same phrase.
- Numbers – there’s a difference of opinion as to using numbers in a word or number form; some say 1-9 should be in full (i.e. one, two… nine) but others say up to / including 99 should be in number form. I think it looks better (unless a date, bus number etc) as a word regardless of the number. For hyphening numbers, see http://www.grammar-monster.com/lessons/numbers_as_compound_adjectives.htm.
- Once – once has more than one meaning; ‘on one occasion’ and ‘sometime ago’. Where you put it within the sentence can change the meaning of that sentence, e.g. ‘I told him once that he…’ could mean that I’d told him on once occasion or I told him some time ago but by moving it to before the verb, e.g. ‘I once told him that he…’ (or once upon a time… :)), it makes it clearer that it was a historical event.
- Past vs passed – generally ‘past’ refers to time whereas ‘passed’ is usually a verb, the past tense of ‘to pass’ which refers to movement, although you can say ‘Tom moved past the door’ which is movement but ‘past’ in this case is not the verb.
- Poetry – http://www.rhymedesk.com and http://www.rhymezone.com are great resources.
- Points of view – most people think of there just being two points of view: first (I/we) and third (he/she/they) but there’s also second person (you). Also see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Narrative_mode. Whatever point of view you’re writing in, make sure you keep in that point of view within the same section. If you switch point of view, i.e. moving from first person (I) to the narrator talking about the main character (protagonist) or from third person about the protagonist to another character, perhaps the baddie (antagonist), then you will need to leave a clear line and start a new section (the first paragraph of which would be flush to the left then subsequent paragraphs indented – see ‘Layout’ below). Then if / when you switch back to the original point of view you would do the same thing; leave a clear line then start a new section (with the same formatting; flush first line, indented subsequent lines). Some authors write differing / alternate points of view in differing / alternate chapters (Judith Allnatt’s 1970’s novel ‘A Mile of River’ does this). Having the same point of view within the same section (and it doesn’t matter how short your section is) runs the risk of a reader thinking that the alternate viewpoint is from the original character’s point of view but thinking about themselves or another character. This is one piece of advice given by London agent Carole Blake on the part one video on the home page of http://wannabeawritertvshow.com.
- Question marks – see ‘Exclamation marks or question marks’ above.
- Quiet vs quieten – http://www.usingenglish.com/forum/ask-teacher/24951-quieting-vs-quietening.html has a debate as to whether it’s correct to quiet down or to quieten down something. What do you think?
- Research – Get your facts right. If you don’t, someone will be sure to let you know!
- Repetition – I’m a big fan of repetition… of not doing it. Unless it’s ‘the’, ‘and’ etc, a word should only be repeated if the second instance is to emphasise or clarify the first. For example, ‘Andy sat in the car. He beeped the horn of the car.’ You don’t need ‘of the car’ because we already know he’s in the car. If you said ‘Andy sat in the car. He beeped the horn and the car shook’ that would be fine because you’re clarifying that it’s the car and not the horn (because it’s the last object you mentioned) that’s shaking.
- Said she vs she said – http://words.journalism.ku.edu/attribute.html favours the usual ‘she said’ although it adds “Place the attribution before the speaker’s name only when the name is followed by a long identification, an appositive or a non-restrictive clause, e.g. The train had sounded its whistleand had flares burning on the back car, said H.D. Muldoon, a brakeman on the train who witnessed the crash. or The train had sounded its whistleand had flares burning on the back car, H.D. Muldoon, a brakeman on the train, said.“.
- Sentence length – Vary the length of your sentences. Short, snappy sentences make for pacier reading. Longer sentences are ideal when you want to slow down the action… perhaps for dramatic effect e.g. in suspense stories. Try and avoid having the noun (e.g. character’s name, He, She…) at the beginning of the sentence too often. It’ll feel like a list.
- Sentences – It’s a writer’s personal choice to use fragmented sentences (e.g. He used the brush. The brush that she’d used in her hair moments before.) instead of separating with a comma. (I prefer the latter.) Grammatically it’s incorrect for sentences on their own not to make sense but it highlights the emphasis in the subsequent paragraphs so it’s a ‘tool’.
- Settings – see ‘Locations’.
- Show vs. tell – Probably the most used phrase when teaching writing is ‘show don’t tell’. If you have a character who is angry for some reason, saying ‘Andy was angry’ is a classic example of ‘tell’. Simply put, you’re not showing us how he feels. If you wrote ‘Andy slammed his fist onto the table’ and / or ‘Get out!’ you are. The best way for a writer to write characters is by having them doing or saying. Readers will stick with you if they feel (love or hate!) for your protagonist (the main character, usually a good guy / gal) or antagonist (the bad guy / gal or at least someone who puts a dilemma or problem in our protagonist’s way so they have to overcome it. So, the doing; as I have above, your character should act angry (sad, happy, etc) and the saying, if they’re angry have them shout (don’t have them shouting too loudly or certainly not swearing if you’re submitting to the likes of the gentle People’s Friend). There’s a great article on this writing essential here.
- Side to side or side-to-side – http://www.thefreedictionary.com/side-to-side lists the latter and I’m inclined to agree although other resources drop the hyphens.
- Slang – thanks to David Miller for asking this question (below in the comments section): “What’s your take on using pop slang in a novel when characters are talking like “Ok lemme know …” Or ” Sheesh! you don’t wanna do that” I think the meaning is obvious n it’s adds authenticity to the conversation but some purists may disagree I guess.”. I answered thus: “I have a bit on accents on the page and the same refers to slang. Less is definitely more. If a reader has to try to work out what the characters are saying, it’s going to pull them out of the story or at least slow them down. You don’t want anything that can distract them from the (hopefully) fast pace of your novel. I’d say OK for a minor character where they have two or three lines. The thing about dialogue is that it should tell us about the character by what they say. Slang is a good way of ‘placing’ someone.”
- Song lyrics – Including lyrics in a piece is always tricky because if your story was self-published, you’d probably have to ask permission from the songwriter’s agent / record company, and maybe pay a royalty fee (usually steep for a well-known song). Submitting to a competition would be the organisation’s responsibility to check because they’d be the one publishing it. Quoting a song’s title is fine because titles aren’t copyright.
- Speech marks vs inverted commas – I’m either old school or just plain English but to me, speech marks (” “) are for speech and inverted commas (‘ ‘) for names, speech within speech marks etc. Either way, you would use one for dialogue and the other for pretty much everything else. As long as you’re consistent you can use either. Remember though that the punctuation in dialogue is different, e.g. “It wasn’t the only one,” he said, scratching his head. The comma there goes inside the speech marks whereas if you use them as a name: My latest book, ‘The Serial Dater’s Shopping List’, is a chick lit. the comma would go outside because it’s not dialogue. I often get mixed up with dialogue punctuation as it doesn’t follow ‘normal’ rules so have a look in any book and you should be able to see an example of what you’re looking for.
- Split infinitives – wherever possible try not to split your infinitives. In other words where you have a verb like ‘to dig out’ try and have ‘He dug out the address book’ rather than ‘He dug the address book out’. It’s only a little thing but it usually sounds cleaner. Of course there are instances where it’s not possible to do that, e.g. He threw the glove down on to the table. The verb is to throw down but you wouldn’t say ‘He threw down the glove on to the table’. You could but it doesn’t sound quite right.
- Synopsis – it’s useful to write a synopsis for your novel (not usually needed for short stories unless you’re pitching a series) because it helps you shape it. By that, I mean that it gives you a start middle and end. A synopsis is what you’d send an agent or publisher, where it includes the ending because they will want to know that it works. It’s different to a book jacket blurb because you wouldn’t want the reader to know what happens or they might not buy the book! Writing an outline per chapter for your novel is handy too because you can see how it progresses. You can do this before, during and after you write your book and it will likely change at each stage (and thereafter as you re-draft, edit and edit some more). You may also have heard of taglines (usually your book in about 20 words) and an elevator pitch (how to ‘sell’ your book to an agent travelling no more than three floors of a hotel), about 100-150 words. Whatever you can prepare in advance of writing will help you as you go along. That said I’m still a pantser, where I get an idea and go with it. As crime novelist (of Vera, Sheland and more), Ann Cleeves, said, she doesn’t know what happens at the end of her novels until she’s written them because if it’s a surprise to her, it’ll be a surprise to her readers. A good plan. :)
- Tenses – in theory this is easy, with ‘he went’ as past, ‘he goes’ as present and ‘he will go’ as future but you may have a section where you’re looking back. Generally if you’re writing in the past tense anyway and are reflecting just use the past perfect, ‘had been’ (or equivalent) for a couple of sentences so the reader knows it’s previous to the story then slip back into simple past tense or it’ll become heavy reading. You can then start a new paragraph / section break to return to the original timing.
- Time to time – to hyphenate or not to hyphenate? Digging around the internet, it would appear that it shouldn’t be (that surprised me). What do you think?
- Titles – finding a title for your masterpiece is often harder than writing the story / poem. You could start off with a title in mind and then find that it doesn’t suit it at all; because the title does have to encapsulate the piece. I used to write a short story a day for my 5pm Fiction slot and quite often the title would be a phrase from the piece which leapt out as I was writing it. All that said, don’t be too precious about the title you’ve chosen because quite often the publisher will change it anyway (and you’d likely have no say in the matter).
- Toward vs towards – http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/toward-versus-towards?page=all explains that, on the whole, us Brits say ‘towards’ and Americans say “toward”.
- Twenty-four seven or 24/7 – as I’ve mentioned above, I’m always in favour of using text rather than digits and while you can use the latter, I’d recommend going with twenty-four seven (or better still, words like ‘continuous’).
- Unreliable narrator – Wikipedia describes this as “is a narrator, whether in literature, film, or theatre, whose credibility has been seriously compromised… Sometimes the narrator’s unreliability is made immediately evident. For instance, a story may open with the narrator making a plainly false or delusional claim or admitting to being severely mentally ill, or the story itself may have a frame in which the narrator appears as a character, with clues to the character’s unreliability. A more dramatic use of the device delays the revelation until near the story’s end. This twist ending forces readers to reconsider their point of view and experience of the story. In some cases the narrator’s unreliability is never fully revealed but only hinted at, leaving readers to wonder how much the narrator should be trusted and how the story should be interpreted. An exception is an event that did not or could not happen, told within the fictionalized historical novels, speculative fiction, or clearly delineated dream sequences. Narrators describing them are not considered unreliable.” Wikipedia’s examples in novels include Nabokov’s Lolita, Agatha Christie’s The Murder of Roger Ackroyd, and Sebastian Faulks’ Engleby.
- Up to date vs up-to-date – as http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/words/hyphen says, it should be hyphenated.
- Verbs – try and make verbs as simple as possible. Avoid adverbs (see above) where you can so instead of saying ‘he walked slowly’ say ‘he plodded’ or ‘he shuffled’. Also unless something is happening ongoing change ‘she was smiling’ to ‘she smiled’ (or ‘she is smiling’ to ‘she smiles’ in present tense). The tighter you can make your writing, the better and the quicker a read (even if it’s not, it’ll feel like it) for your reader. Also use simple past (e.g. he walked) rather than continuous past (e.g. he was walking) unless it’s for a specific reason.
- Was vs was – In the sentence of ‘The room was small and the fireplace was painted black’, you can lose the second ‘was’. Every word you lose, especially to avoid repetition, makes your writing tighter.
- Was vs were (subjunctive) – if I was or if I were? The latter is correct and http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/subjunctive-verbs explains this.
- While vs whilst – ‘Among vs amongst’.
- Who vs whom – There are loads of sites out there discussing when to use ‘who’ and when to use ‘whom’. These include: http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/who-versus-whom?page=all, (‘who’ when the main person, the subject, is being talked about or doing the action and ‘whom’ when the secondary person, the object, is being talked about). There’s also http://www.grammarbook.com/grammar/whovwhom.asp, http://www.elearnenglishlanguage.com/difficulties/whowhom.html and http://www.prdaily.com/Main/Articles/Who_vs_whom_A_simple_trick_for_determining_when_to_8964.aspx, the latter of which says, “Figure it out by… replacing the who or whom with he or him. If he is wrong, so is who. If him is wrong, so is whom.”
- Writer’s block – It depends on whether you get stuck before you start, i.e. no idea for a story, or whether you’re mid-project. For the former, I post writing prompts which I know helps a variety of authors, especially those starting out. If stuck mid-story, I’d recommend moving on to something unrelated – another story or non-writing – then coming back to it or add another character, dilemma or location. If you know something that happens in a later chapter then put ‘more here’ and come back to it. You can then search for your ‘more here’s and by then hopefully be able to continue them and / or by moving on you will be able to piece what happens in between.
- And finally advice from two experts: Top 10 tips for being a best-selling author by Sophie Kinsella and PD James. Interesting that they both say not to divulge the plot to anyone until it’s finished. Also Top 10 tips for writing a Hollywood blockbuster by Tony Gilroy (who wrote the scripts for The Devil’s Advocate, Armageddon and the Bourne films).
So, when writing a story (of any length) think about…
- Is the main character likeable? Even if he or she isn’t, the reader has to care what happens to them.
- Unless it’s flash fiction, do you have a start, middle and end? Does the ending work?
- Is there enough action for the reader to be wanting to read on?
- Have you avoided repetition unless it’s to emphasise?
- Do you have the five senses? You won’t always have taste, touch and smell (as well as sight and sound) but if you can get them in (naturally), all the better.
- Below are some more tips on editing…
- Before you edit – before you start pulling your masterpiece apart, leave it for at least a week (a month is ideal) then come back to it. It then won’t feel so familiar and will be easier to spot the errors (there will be some). And when you do go through it, read it out loud – if a section doesn’t feel natural then something has to change.
- Every word has to count – does it move the story along or tell us about your characters? If not, the chances are it can be chopped. Cate Artios has a great editing checklist.
- Overused words – there are words that are often overused, or used unnecessarily – see ‘Adverbs’ and ‘Excess words’ above.
- Spelling – do check your spelling. A spell-checker (the red squiggly lines in Word) and grammar check (green lines) will only go so far. Reading aloud (I mention that again below) will help with the grammar. Most common mistakes include there (a place), their (belonging to them) and they’re (they are) – easily done but something that point you out to a judge or editor for the wrong reason.
- Take out the detail – although every scene needs some detail, you don’t have to have someone taking every step from the bathroom or kitchen to the bedroom. This is where you can leave a paragraph space and start the next scene, like you would in a script (although the format of that is more complex, I wrote one for now defunct Script Frenzy 2010). And don’t ‘pad’. If your book is too short don’t add in content that you’ve already said elsewhere (and certainly if you’re tempted to add a ‘tell’ when you’ve already ‘shown’ us what’s happening). These days with eBooks, the length of the book doesn’t matter as long as it’s good and you’ve not left anything important out (e.g. tying up all the loose ends by the final page). The best way to add content is by adding another character and / or dilemma. Rita Kuehn gives some great advice on adding here.
- UK vs US – to colour or color? when is a bonnet a hood? In theory it depends on who you are aiming your piece at. If it’s going to be published in a US magazine then you’d generally go with US (ditto UK for UK) but if you’re character is American they’re going to call a bonnet a hood. My chick lit novel is set in Northampton, England and Izzy is from the UK so everything is British English. As long as the reader can understand and everything is realistic (accents, phrases etc) then go with whatever works (but do check your facts if you’re outside your postal or comfort zone!).
- Wordy phrases – Why use three words (or more) when one will do… take a look at http://www.dailywritingtips.com/50-plain-language-substitutions-for-wordy-phrases for 50 examples.
- Re-writing is also mentioned in http://morgenbailey.freeforums.org/hitting-a-wall-total-rewrite-or-editing-t82.html.
LAYOUT (can vary from publisher to publisher but the notes below are the standard)
- Dialogue: layout – each character should have its own paragraph when speaking so if you have two or more characters speaking, when they speak the text should appear on a separate paragraph.
- Font – usually in Times New Roman or Arial, pitch font size 12. If you’re eBooking, either is fine for Amazon but Smashwords prefers Garamond.
- Italics – if you have a character thinking, you’d usually use italics. You can also use it for quoting names in your story, such as a restaurant or book title.
- Justification: left side – pick up a book of fiction (especially a recent one) and you’ll see that the first paragraph of any chapter is not indented but the rest are. This is fairly standard across the board and how agents / editors would want to see your manuscripts laid out. The indented space should equate to 2-3 spaces maximum. You can adjust this by moving your ‘first line indent’ tab on your ruler (if you’re using Word or equivalent, it looks like a diamond-triangle) across 2-3 spaces from the left. You would need to move this back (or press your backspace key once) when you create a blank line between paragraphs or start a new section.
- Justification: right side – your document doesn’t have to be right-hand justified. It’s actually best not to because if you have a line with some long words, it’ll create too many spaces between them as it stretches them across the page.
- Spacing: paragraph – some writers are tempted to leave a gap when they’re changing character speech or a different topic but you would just use a new line. Generally you’d only use a new paragraph (with a blank line in between) when there has been a passage of time. You must however, have a new section (blank line then new non-indented paragraph) if you’re changing point of view, i.e. if you’ve been in one character’s head in the earlier paragraph and now want to be in another.
- Spacing: words/sentences – another kind of spacing: spaces between words. One. Old school (when I first started my secretarial training) was for two spaces but text these days is just separated by one space, even sentences.
- Speech marks vs inverted commas – see above.
- Submitting your manuscript – if you’re submitting to a competition, you mustn’t have your name on the document. You should if you’re submitting elsewhere. These days, you’re likely to submit via email so it will remain one document but if you’re sending a printed document, I’d recommend having your name in the footer (on the left-hand side, and the page number on the right-hand side) and the title of your novel in the middle of the top header. Rules for eBooking are different (especially page numbers – you shouldn’t use them – because eReaders will have their own numbering system depending on what font the reader themselves use to view the document) and I mention them here.
- http://www.marlyspearson.com/formatting_101.htm is a great guide targeted at submissions for US agents / publishers although much of it is relevant for the UK.
BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER
- Read. It doesn’t matter whether it’s your genre or not (one of my Monday nighters writes amazing sci-fi but has never read a word of it) but reading will help you see how a story is structured and balanced between dialogue and description; short sentences speed the pace, long passages slow it down.
- Join a writing group, get your work critiqued. Read your work out loud. It’s amazing what you’ll pick up when you hear it outside your head. I have some writing group tips on http://morgenbailey.wordpress.com/writing-groups.
- Subscribe to writing magazines, go to workshops, literary festivals. If you want to write, immerse yourself in all things literary.
- A bit of a wild card but do you ever want to include phone numbers in your fiction and put random numbers in the hope they’re not real? If so, Ofcom.org.uk states that in the UK 01632 (then usually six digits) isn’t used and in the U.S. the equivalent is 555 and http://home.earthlink.net/~mthyen lists a load used in the movies / on TV. Now you know. :)
- Know your audience: If, say, you’re writing for UK women’s magazines, know what level of a dilemma you can use for the likes of People’s Friend (gentle) to Woman’s Weekly or Take a Break (crime, spine chillers etc).
- A bit random but if you want to talk writing on Twitter, http://www.bookmarketingservices.org/ultimate-list-of-author-specific-hashtags is a useful list of hashtags (the # symbol alongside topics), a great way of people finding your content.
- I’ve been asked about copyright and http://mistakeswritersmake.blogspot.com/p/copyright.html explains this well. Unless the author sells it, copyright will always stay with them until 75 years after their death. This means anyone reprinting their (your) writing, has to have permission until after that date, and well-known authors will usually have estates who will have continued their copyright thereafter. If you sell something, or donate a piece of work to a charity anthology, you’re not giving away (or selling) your copyright but the rights (usually ‘first serial rights’) for them to print it but make sure you know to what extent. Usually with shorter pieces, such as fiction in magazines, you can then sell ‘second serial rights’ after a year) but check your contract. So, if you’ve been asked to give over (or sell) your copyright, I’d say don’t, unless they’re offering you lots of money or it’s something you don’t mind ‘giving’ away. If it’s for a short amount of time (though that seems strange to me), I’d say get someone in the know to read the contract to ensure that it would unequivocally be reverted to you. If your piece appears in an anthology it should appear in the credits / acknowledgements as copyright your name, e.g. (c) Joanne Smith. If you’ve been offered a novel publishing contract (or sold a certain number of books), you can apply to be a member of the Society of Authors (UK only) and although it costs £90pa to belong, it’s worth it for the free (ongoing) legal advice.
- Synopses – see above.
- Titles – see above.
- Perhaps most obviously is write. Even if you haven’t got much (or anything) to say, if you start putting pen to paper or fingers to keyboard, something will come out. Even if it’s appalling (a lot of my early writing was), you can’t edit a blank page.
There are many more examples I could give you (and I will put more on this page), but all you need to remember is that it’s not about clever words (because that ends up becoming ‘purple prose’) but just getting pen to paper, or fingers to keyboard and having fun. When your characters take over (and they will) you’ll have the time of your life!
I also have a tip of the week (so that’s 52 tips!) in my 365-day Writer’s Block Workbook (Volume 1), just $0.99 (or it should be, the most it would be is $1.49).
Let me know if you have any specific queries. You can Ask Me or my email address is below. What are your writing essentials? Do let us know.
Other useful tips:
- Publisher Apostrophe Books has some great advice for authors from Hunter S Thompson, Ray Bradbury and Stephen King.
- http://www.theshortstory.net/submission-guidelines (underneath the competition guidelines)